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Akhet  -  Inundation

Peret  -  Planting
 when the Nile receded

Shemu  -  Harvest Time
a dry time when the crops were harvested

Ancient Egypt > Index

Ancient Egypt Index Page:    The following subjects are listed in this category as separate pages on this site.

Egyptian Art

The Early Dynastic Period saw the;

Egyptian Cities

With a very simple geography and a very dry climate, Egypt was protected from outside influences, with almost all cities and villages within the Nile Valley, which allowed it to evolve to a homogeneous culture with slow change over time. The Nile river flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Its flood plain was an extensive oasis. Humans were drawn there because they could grow crops and settle into permanent villages. The annual flooding of the Nile deposited nutrient rich silt on the land, creating all the ingredients needed to support life and the growth of a civilization. Easy transportation by sailing in the Nile resulted in a strong central and united government capable of ruling all the country easily with its main cities retaining importance through entire history.

Ancient Egyptian Gods  -  An Index to alphebetical list of Gods

The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt continue to fascinate us today and few realize that there were more than 2000 gods worshiped in ancient Egypt - Some, such as Ra were worshipped throughout the whole country, while most had only a local cult center. No one can visualize a synthesis that encapsulates the essence of individual gods and goddesses in the pharaonic pantheon.

Originally the Egyptian gods were the embodiments of natural forces and phenomena that ensured their continual recurrence: solar gods, such as Ra, guaranteed the movement of the Sun across the sky; the gods of the first Nile cataract the regular floods of the river. Other gods ensured the functioning of society: Horus manifested himself in the king; Ptah patronized the crafts; Anubis directed the burial of the dead.

The Egyptian Sepat

As early as 3500 BC, during Egypt's Predynastic Period, towns and cities (if they can be called such), consisted of regional capitals linked to the population centers of smaller administrative districts. The Sepat is the ancient Egyptian term for these administrative provinces known as Upper Egypt (Ancient Egyptian: Ta Shemau) and Lower Egypt (Ancient Egyptian: Ta Mehu). The term most frequently applied to these districts is nome, which was actually not used to describe a province until the Greek Period (Greek, nomos;). The nome system started in the Early Dynastic Period. During some periods, when there was a highly centralized government the nomes had little political importance.

Ancient Egyptian Timeline

There is not general agreement on the length and ending dates of the different periods. The dates and times listed on these pages could be off by decades to centuries depending on the period referenced.

The pre-Dynastic period of Egyptian history is broken into a few different periods. The "Primitive" Pre-Dynastic period, from about 5500 BCE, marked the beginning of stoneworking and pottery, jewerly and other artifacts and burial customs. The "Old" Pre-Dynastic (from about 4500 BCE) was known as Naqada I (named for the primary site of artifacts from this period, Naqada. Following Naqada I is (of couse!) Naqada II.

About 3050 BC, when the first pharaoh Menes united Lower Egypt (referring to the river delta region of the Nile River), and Upper Egypt (everything south of the delta), the Egyptian civilization had three flowerings, called by historians the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, interrupted by mini-dark ages, called Intermediate Periods, when Egypt was temporarily conquered by opposing empires.