As the mythology developed, so did the idea that Meseket was controlled by a separate ferryman, who became known as Aken. The underworld was composed of the general area, named Duat, and a more pleasant area to which the morally righteous were permitted, named Aaru. Anubis had become merely the god of embalming, and Osiris, though lord of the whole underworld, dwelt specifically in Aaru. As both an underworld deity, and subservient to Osiris, Aken became known as Cherti (also spelt Kherty), meaning (one who is) subservient. The main centre of his cult became Letopolis.
An earth-god also presiding over the juncture of the western and eastern horizons in the underworld. There are strong indications that Aker was worshipped before other known Egyptian gods of the earth, such as Geb. In particular, the Pyramid texts make a sinister statement that the Akeru (plural of Aker) will not seize the pharaoh, as if this were something that might have happened, and was something of which to be afraid.
Initially Aker was depicted as a narrow strip of land with a human or lion head at each end, but later the strip of land was replaced by the hieroglyphic sign meaning "horizon".
A goddess whose name means "hidden one" and whose shadoe, among the primeval gods, is a symbol of protection. A diety at Karnak temple at least sinse Dynasty XII, she is predominantly the consort of Amun playing, however, a less prolific role that his other wife Mut.
In Egyptian mythology, Amunet (also spelled Amonet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) was a deity having several different characteristics during the long history of the pantheon of Ancient Egypt. Initially, Amunet was the female aspect of an abstract concept for air and invisibility and aspect of Hathor. This deity was without gender, but divided between Amunet and Amun for female and male aspects.
He is said to have been born at the end of Thutmose III's reign, in the town of Athribis. He was an architect, a priest, a scribe, and a public official, who held a number of offices under Amenhotep III. High official of the reign of Amenhotep III of ancient Egypt (reigned 1390–53 bce), who was greatly honoured by the king within his lifetime and was deified more than 1,000 years later during the Ptolemaic era.
Amenhotep came from Athribis in the Delta and rose to prominence in the theban court. He was responsible for recruiting military personal and laborers for state building projects. As chief architect of the pharaoh he must have been involved in the lavish programe of temple construction – not only at Thebes but also in Nubia at the temple of Soleb.
After his death, his reputation grew and he was revered for his teachings and as a philosopher. He was also revered as a healer and eventually worshipped as a god of healing, like his predecessor
A threatening Underworld god whose name means "Devourer of Millions". He dwells in a lake of fire. His ferocity is heightened by having the face of a hunting dog and an appetite for sacrifices. Only Atum
can fend off Am-heh.
- Ammut [see; Papyrus of Hunefer, Dyn.
XIX British Museum]
whose name, "Devouress of the dead", aptly conveys her grim role as annihilator of those who have led wicked lives on earth. In funerary papyri she is shown in the vignette showing the weighing of the heart in the hall of two truths. This goddess incorporates the crocodile (head), lion or leopard (front legs & middle) and the rear of a hippopotamus. Called the "Great of Death" in some papyri, her task is to swallow the heart of anyone unfit in the realm of Osiris.
(The Ancient Egyptians thought the heart was the seat of the soul, so she is essentially the "Devourer of Souls.")
Primeval deity and supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon.
The Nile Goose is sacred to Amun probably on account of its association
with the act of creation. The pre-eminent sacred creature of Amun is the
ram with curved horns.
Amun's name seems to be connected with the word meaning "to conceal" and it is indicative of the Egyptian's own ideas on the god's nature to interpret it as the "hidden one".
First mentioned in the pyramid texts as ascending to the sky, the king as the son of Geb will sit "upon the throne of Amun". Amun has status among the primeval deities and protects the gods with his shadow. Perhaps these thoughts are the embryo of Amun's universal kingship.
As he became more significant, he was paired with a goddess (his counterpart, Amunet, being the female aspect of the early concept of air, rather than a wife), and since he was becoming identified as a creator, it was considered more appropriate to designate him as the spouse of the divine mother from whom the cosmos emerged to enhance his status. By the time that Amun rose to this recognition, the divine mother was Mut.
In the New Kingdom the divinity of Amun was enhanced by interpreting him as a mysterious manifestation of the ancient sun-god of Heliopolis. Since the Middle Kingdom certain Egyptian rulers had been given names incorpating that of the god:
||Amun is pre-eminent
||Amun is content
||Amun United with Amun
Warrior-goddess of Ugarit on the Syrian coast and attested in Egypt from the
end of the Middle Kingdom.
She is one of a number of deities imported into Egypt from the Syrian
Young and impetuous Anat was one of the great goddesses of the ancient
Levant, the area now occupied by Israel, Transjordan, and Syria.
Anat cult seems to have been promoted by the Hyksos rulers and in the
Ramesside era she was a prominent goddess in the delta. Her martial nature
is emphasized by the shield, lance and battle axe. Ramesses III uses Anat
and Astarte as his shield on the battlefield. In a carving in
Biet el Wali temple, she has the name "Anat in vigor". While the rulers of
Egypt's New Kingdom took every step to denounce the Hyksos dynasty, her
prestige reached its height in Egypt under Ramesses II who adopted Anat as
his personal guardian in battle.
A god in anthropomorphic form originally worshiped in the mid-Delta in Lower Egyptian epat 9.
It is thought that he was a historical ruler of the ancient Egyptian city of Djedu (Busiris) who
became the god of domestic and farm animals, and possibly introduced the use of the shepherds crook as an emblem of kingship.
Andjety (meaning "he of Andjet", i.e. the town of Busiris) was the precursor of Osiris at the cult center of Busiris.
Andjety was depicted as an old man bearing all of the emblems of kingship and wearing a crown with two feathers. This echoed
the Atef crown worn by Osiris who replaced and absorbed both Andjety and the Djed pillar as the focus of worship in Djedu. In
the Underworld there is also an obvious identification between Andjety and Osiris, as ruler. In the temple of Sety I at Abydos,
the king is represented burning incense to the god Osiris-Andjety.
of particular importance as a Nome god of Nome's 12 and 18 of Upper Egypt.
In the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts,
Anti is represented standing on a crescent-shaped boat and is described as
supervising the sailing of the "henu" boat of the deity Sokar. As
god of ferrymen, he gained the title Nemty, meaning (one who) travels. His
later cult centre Antaeopolis was known as Per-Nemty (House of Nemty).
God of Mummification (embalming and the dead). His role was as the "guardian to necropolis".
Canine god of cemeteries
and embalming. His usual form is that of a desert dog, ears up and tail
hanging, with a collar of magical force and the flagellum of Osiris from the
center of his body.
as "sab" in early texts, the Anubis dog is probably a jackal. It
is possible that other dogs, like the rust-colored pariah, were prototypes.
Anubis is possibly a quintessence of these desert dogs.
of the cataracts of the Lower Nile whose name in Egyptian is Anket.
Her cult can be traced back to the Old Kingdom in Upper Egypt mainly Elephantine, and Scheil (an island
south of Aswan). Strongly associated with Lower Nubia, she is not an
imported goddess. Her origins are an Egyptian speculation on the nature of a
deity beyond their southern frontier. Anukis could mean the "embracer", as a
nurse or lethally as a strangler. If so, she would have a dual temperament
similar to Hathor. Anukis is closely connected to Hathor in Thebes.
She is referred to as the daughter of Re and does not take the role of the
divine child of Khnum and Satis until the New Kingdom. Her sacred anamil is
Lion-god of war indigenous to the Sudanese culture of Meroe, developed from
the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, which originated in Kush.
Bull cults were popular from at least the First Dynasty (Early Dynastic Period. The powerful and virile bull was associated with the pharaoh, who sometimes took the epithet "strong bull of his mother". As early as 3100 BC the king is depicted in the form of a bull. A sacred bull was identified by specific sacred markings. Once the bull had been confirmed as the incarnation of a god, it was housed in plush quarters, given only the best food, and provided with a harem of the best cows. The lucky animal would live in the lap of luxury until its death when it would be mummified and buried with full
- Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh), was a bull-deity
worshipped in the Memphis region. The cult of the Apis bull started at
the very beginning of Egyptian history, probably as a fertility god
connected to grain and the herds. In a funerary context, the Apis was a
protector of the deceased, and linked to the pharaoh. This animal was
chosen because it symbolized the king’s courageous heart, great
strength, virility, and fighting spirit. The Apis bull was considered to
be a manifestation of the pharaoh, as bulls were symbols of strength and
fertility, qualities which are closely linked with kingship ("strong
bull of his mother Hathor" was a common title for gods and pharaohs).
The worship of Apis was instituted by Kaiechos of the Second Dynasty.
Hape (Apis) is named on very early monuments, but is little known before
the New Kingdom. Ceremonial burials of bulls indicate that ritual
sacrifice was part of the worship of the early cow deities and a bull
might represent a king who became a deity after death. He was entitled
"the renewal of the life" of the Memphite god Ptah: but after death he
became Osorapis, i.e. the Osiris Apis, just as dead humans were
assimilated to Osiris, the king of the underworld. This Osorapis was
identified with the Hellenistic Serapis, and may well be identical with
him. Greek writers make the Apis an incarnation of Osiris, ignoring the
connection with Ptah.