Ancient Egyptian Gods I thru O
Young God personifying the jubilation emanating from the sacred rattle.
In the temple complex the birth house or "mammisi" was a sanctuary where the mystery of the conception and birth of the divine child Ihy was celebrated. His name is rarely found outside the confines of Dendera temple.
- Imhotep, or "he who cometh in peace," was born in Ankhtowe, a
suburb of Memphis, Egypt. He was an Egyptian polymath, who served
under the Third Dynasty king, Djoser, with titles such as Chancellor
of the King of Egypt, Doctor, First in line after the King of Upper
Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, high
priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis and he controlled the
departments of the Judiciary (court system), Treasury, War,
Agriculture, and the General Executive. Two thousand years after his
death, his status was raised to that of a deity.
Imhotep was known perhaps best of all as the architect of the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, near Memphis. The Step Pyramid was the first structure created by human hands to be built entirely from stone.
Imhotep is one of the few Egyptian gods (other than the pharaohs) who was actually a real person. He was the vizier of Djoser, a pharaoh of the third dynasty. He was skilled in all areas of administration and royal enterprises. Imhotep was also a priest, writer, a doctor and a founder of the Egyptian studies of astronomy and architecture.
- The mother of Horus, sister and wife of Osiris, the goddess Isis
was the first daughter of Geb, god of the Earth, and Nut, the
goddess of the Overarching Sky, and was born on the fourth
intercalary day. As the Goddess of motherhood, magic and fertility,
she was worshiped as the ideal mother and wife.
Isis is also known as the goddess of simplicity, protector of the dead and goddess of children from whom all beginnings arose. In later myths, the Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile River flooded every year because of her tears of sorrow for her dead husband, Osiris.
Temples to Isis were built in Iraq, Greece and Rome, with a well preserved example discovered in Pompeii.
- Iusaas was a goddess of Heliopolis whose name means, "she comes who
is great". Wearing a scarab beetle on her head she can easily be seen as
a counterpart to the sun god Atum, and like Nebethetepet plays a crucial
role as the feminine principle in the creation of the world.
Iusaas is depicted in human form with a scarab beetle on her head, and also wears the sun disk and horns of Hathor, with whom she was later assimilated. Her name is also seen as Jusas and Juesaes. Iusaas was a goddess of Heliopolis whose name means, "she comes who is great". Wearing a scarab beetle on her head she can easily be seen as a counterpart to the sun god Atum, and like Nebethetepet plays a crucial role as the feminine principle in the creation of the world.
- In Egyptian mythology, Khepri (also spelled Khepera, Kheper (dung beetle), Chepri, Khepra) is the name of a major god. Since the scarab beetle lays its eggs in the bodies of various dead animals, including other scarabs, and in dung, from which they emerge having been born, the ancient Egyptians believed that scarab beetles were created from dead matter. Because of this, they also associated the Khepri with rebirth, renewal, and resurrection. Indeed, his name means "to come into being".
- Kherty (or Cherti meaning "Lower one") was an ancient Egyptian earth god and a god of the underworld who sailed the boat which carried the decased on their last journey. He was associated with Aken, and may have been seen as an aspect of that god at one time. He was particultarly prominent during the Old Kingdom when he was thought to share the rule of the underworld with Osiris. Like Osiris he could be dangerous to man and was feared, but was also invoked as a protective deity.
- Khnum also Khnemu, Khenmu, Khenmew and Chnum
Khnum was one of the most ancient gods of Egypt, whose worship is thought to have been popular as early as the Predynastic Period. References from the Pyramid Texts of Unas confirm that his worship was established with the Old Kingdom pharaoh Khufu (the builder of the Great Pyramid) was actually called "Khnum-Khufu" ("Khnum is his Protector"). It seems however, that the cult of Ra (or Re) rose to dominance at that time and Khnum was pushed to the sidelines as Khufu's son and grandson (Khaf-Re and Menkau-Re) both took names honouring Ra.
His cult was centered on the island of Abu (Elephantine 1st nome of Upper Egypt) where he had been worshiped since the Early Dynastic period . During the New Kingdom he was worshiped there as head of a triad with his wife Satet and his daughter Anuket. He was sometimes associated with Isis to represent the Upper Egypt, just as Ptah-Tanen was associated with Nepthys in representing Lower Egypt.
His name obtained from the root khnem, "to join, to unite," and with khnem, "to build"; astronomically the name refers to the "conjuction" of the sun and moon at stared seasons of the year, Khnum was the 'Father of Fathers and the Mother of Mothers' of the pharaoh. As a water god he was sometimes named "KebH", meaning "purify". He was represented as either a ram, a man with the head of a ram or a man with the horns of a ram.
- Mnevis (also written Meruur or Mer-wer) Ref: Apis & Buchis
Mnevis, also called Menuis, Egyptian Nemur, Greek form of Merwer, in ancient Egyptian religion, sacred bull deity worshipped at Heliopolis. In late Egyptian mythology, Mnevis was an aspect of the chief god in the region of Heliopolis, Atum-Ra.
The Mnevis was the sacred bull of Heliopolis. The bull was usually completely black, but if that was not possible a white bull was also acceptable. The chosen bull was also known as "Kemwer" ("great black"). In time, the bull came to be associated with the more popular Apis bull.
The bull was associated with Ra and possibly also with Min. When Akhenaten abandoned the other god in favour of The Aten he claimed that he would maintain the Mnevis cult. The cult may have retained his favour because of its solar associations, but archeologists have not discovered any indication that the pharaoh made good his promise.
Very little information regarding the Mnevis cult has been found. Only two Mnevis burials have been discovered, from the reigns of Ramesses II and Ramesses IV (during the New Kingdom) interred in individual tombs cut into the ground and topped by a huge granite slab. The burials included a set of Canopic Jars which were probably purely ritualistic as they were found to be empty.
God whose domain is Duat - the Egyptian Underworld.
Osiris (Asir) was the first son of Geb and Nut and the brother of Set, Horus (the elder), Isis and Nephthys. As one of the most prominent gods of the Heliopolitan Ennead, his worship pre-dated the development of this fairly complex philosophy. The priests of Heliopolis installed Atum as the head of the Ennead however, Osiris was considered to be the king of the underworld, and is the only deity who is referred to simply as "god". This gives an indication of his prominence and popularity.
Described as the first born of the children of Geb and Nut, Osiris' birthplace is given as Rosetau, located in the Western Desert necropolis near Memphis, signifying the entrance to the Underworld. However, from the symbols of the eye and the throne, Osiris has been given roots both east and west of the Nile, that is, in Mesopotamia as the god Marduk, and in Libya as an alleged corn-god bearing a Berber name which means "old one".
There is a nexus of importance, in the Old Kingdom, between the monarchy and Osiris. Once the ruler of Egypt has died he becomes Osiris, King of Duat. In the texts decorating the burial chamber of the last pyramid built in Dynasty V and those constructed in Dynasty VI, the dead king is sometimes referred to under the gods name, such as; Osiris Wenis or Osiris Pepi.